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tè bié
adv. especially, in particular; for a particular purpose; all the more
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特别 and 尤其:

1. 特别 can be an adjective and an adverb; 尤其 is only an adverb.
E.g.1: 你的茶杯很特别。 [phr] Your teacup is very special.
In this sentence, 特别 appears as an adjective, so we cannot use 尤其 to replace 特别.

2. When 特别 is an adverb, 特别 has the following meanings:
2A. especially, in particular (sometimes translates to "very, very much");
E.g.2A 我特别喜欢这种香皂的味道。 [phr] I like the smell of this perfumed soap very much.
2B. for a particular purpose;
E.g. 2B 为了学好汉语,我特别买了这套词典作为辅助学习材料。 [phr] For the purpose of learning Chinese, I bought this set of dictionaries to complement (my) learning materials.
2C. all the more, especially;
E.g.2C 我喜欢吃葡萄,特别是紫色的。 [phr] I like eating grapes, especially the purple ones.
In all these three meanings of 特别 listed above, 尤其, which is an adverb, only has the meaning of 2C. We can use 尤其 to replace 特别 in the example sentence:
E.g. 2C 我喜欢吃葡萄,尤其是紫色的。
极其 is extremely; 特别 and 格外 mean particularly and they are interchangeable.
特别 can also be an adjective; 极其 and 格外 are only adverbs.
Are there any synonyms for 特别 (tèbié) that I can use?
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