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lìng wài
pro./conj. other, another; in addition, besides
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In this post, we compare two pronouns: 另外 and 其他.
1. Both 另外 and 其他 can be used directly before a noun. This noun can be omitted. The difference is that we have to use 的 after 另外. After 其他, 的 is not a necessity.
2. When used before a a measure word-numeral phrase, 的 can be omitted for 另外 too. Both 另外 and 其他 can be followed by such a phrase, but an exception exists — 其他 cannot be used before number 1, 一.
再说 vs 另外

再说 is a phrase, used to introduce an additional reason for an action or decision:
The structure is: "A, 再说 B。" Please note that in this structure, B is always related to A. B is the additional reason for that action/decision expressed by A.
E.g. 没关系,再说你也不是故意的。 [phr] It doesn't matter; besides, you didn't do it on purpose.

另外 can be different parts of speech: pronoun, conjunction, adverb.
1. 另外 (pronoun) other, another
E.g. 老师举了另外一个例子来说明这个问题。 [phr] The teacher gave another example to illustrate this question.
再说 cannot be used in this way.
2. 另外 (conjunction) in addition, besides. This meaning of 另外 seems very similar to 再说, but note that in the structure "A, 另外 B。", the relationship between A and B is different from "A, 再说 B。". In "A, 另外 B。", B can be but is not always the additional reason for the action/decision expressed by A.
E.g. in this sentence below, we can only use 另外, not 再说.
请把这份报告送交给校长,另外告诉他有位专家想约见他。 [phr] Please take this report to the president, and by the way, tell him that an expert wants to schedule an appointment with him.
3. 另外 (adverb) separately, differently
E.g. 这件事另外处理。 [phr] This will be dealt with separately.
再说 cannot be used in this way.
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