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n./prep. quilt; by (used to indicate the passive voice)
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These prepositions, 被, 叫, 让 and 给 can all indicate the passive voice. How are they different?
被 and 给 may be placed directly before the verb predicate without mentioning the doer of the action (E.g. 1 and 2). Other prepositions, 叫 and 让 do not have this unique usage. 叫 and 让 must have objects (E.g. 3 and 4).
E.g. 1 他被(我们公司)录用了。 [phr] He is hired by our company.
E.g. 2 他给叫走了。 [phr] He was called away.
E.g. 3 我的钱包让小偷偷走了。 [phr] My wallet was stolen by a thief.
E.g. 4 路上,他的衣服叫雨给淋湿了。 [phr] On the way, his clothes became wet from the rain.
The 被-sentence expresses that someone or something is subject to a certain result with the influence of the action. The basic pattern of such a sentence is:
- Subject [被 Doer of the action] Verb Other elements
E.g. 1 行李箱[被司机]拿走了。 [phr] The suitcase was taken away by the driver.
E.g. 2 他[被我们公司]录用了。 [phr] He is hired by our company.
E.g. 3 那个洞已经[被]封了。 [phr] That hole has been sealed.

The part in the brackets “[被 Doer of the action]” acts as the adverbial adjunct modifying the verb predicate that comes after it.
The subject of a 被-sentence can be a person (E.g. 2) or a thing (E.g. 1), and it has to be the recipient of the action indicated by the predicate. The doer of the action appears after 把. For example in E.g. 1, 司机 is the doer of the action 拿走; in E.g. 2 我们公司 is the doer of 录用. Sometimes the doer of the action can be omitted (E.g.3).
The verb in a 被-sentence is a transitive verb and can govern or influence the subject.
The “other elements” include (but are not limited to) particles 了 or 过, complements, objects, etc.
Other adverbial adjuncts may occur before 被. For instance, “已经” in E.g. 3.

The negative form of a 被-sentence is made by adding 没/没有 before 被. In the negative form, 已经 and 了 can no longer be used. For example, the negative form of E.g. 2 and 3 is respectively E.g. 4 and 5 below:
E.g. 4 他没有[被我们公司]录用。
E.g. 5 那个洞没[被]封。
被 vs 由

被 and 由 both mean "to be done (by...)", but they are different.
1. Sentences with 由 emphasize who is responsible for the action. The action itself has a strong sense of purpose and is usually arranged or planned;

2. Sentences with 被 emphasize the result that comes from the influence of the action. The action itself does not have a strong sense of purpose, meaning that it is usually not planned or pre-arranged.

Examples of 由:
这项重大工程由他负责,我放心。 [phr] I felt relieved that he was responsible for this important project.
这次的事故是由他酒后开车所致。 [phr] This accident is caused by his drunk-driving.
这家公司由他经营。 [phr] This company is operated by him.

Examples of 被:
我的奶酪蛋糕被你吃了。 [phr] My cheesecake was eaten by you.
我的报纸被风刮跑了。 [phr] My newspaper was blown away by the wind.
How is 被 (bèi) used with other parts of speech?
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When is it appropriate to use 被 (bèi)?
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