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par. used to create adverbs or adverbial phrases (placed before the predicate)
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There are three important structural particles, and 地 is one of them. The other two are 的 and 得. These structural particles indicate grammatical relations. Their pronunciation is exactly the same -- "de" with the neutral tone (you may search for 的 and 得 in trainchinese dictionary), however, they are written differently and they are not interchangeable.
地 only occurs after an adverbial adjunct, so it is the signal of adverbials. For example:
- 安静地走了 left quitely
- 高兴地笑了 laugh/smile happily
- 紧紧地握住我的手 hold my hand(s) tightly
- 冷冷地看着我 look at me coldly
the simplest way to explain it is 地is Usually stand aftar an adjective to change it into an adverb
他高兴地笑了he smiled happily
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Must all adverbial adjuncts be followed by 地? The answer is NO.

Some adverbial adjuncts must be followed by 地. 地 is a must after an adverbial adjunct which is a (an):
1. verb: E.g.违心她违心地结了婚。 [phr] She was married against her will.
2. disyllabic adjective/verb: E.g. 听到这个消息他[高兴地]笑了。 [phr] When he heard this piece of news he laughed happily.
3. disyllabic word indicating modality: E.g.他[无助地]站在路上,不知道该怎么办。 [phr] He stood on the road helplessly and didn't know what to do.
4. coordinative phrase: E.g.他[拼死拼活地]工作。 [phr] He works like crazy.
5. verb-object phrase: E.g. 这个请求被[有礼貌地]回绝了。 [phr] The request was gracefully refused.
6. endocentric phrase: E.g. 你[十分冷静地]面对这个问题。 [phr] You face this problem with a very calm attitude.
7. subject-predicate phrase: E.g. 她[神情恍惚地]望着窗外。 [phr] She looked outside the window in a trance.
8. Idioms or fixed expressions: E.g. 工作人员正在加班加点,各项工作在[有条不紊地]进行着。 [phr] The staff are working overtime, and all the work is proceeding in a methodical way.
9. reduplicated form of a disyllabic word: E.g. 麻雀在外边[叽叽喳喳地]叫。 [phr] Sparrows are twittering outside.
10. reduplicated form of a numeral-measure word phrase: E.g. 一个一个地 [phr] one by one, one after another
Many thanks this really helps! Cheers!
In some other cases, 地 must not be used after the adverbial adjuncts (in the brackets “[…]” in the examples below):
1. adverb: E.g. 他每周[都]洗车。 [phr] he washes his car every week.
2. prepositional phrase: E.g. 他[在书上]写下了自己的名字。 [phr] He wrote down his name on the book.
3. noun: E.g. 你[下午]来,好吗? [phr] Come in the afternoon, will you?
4. monosyllabic adjective: E.g. [多]吃一点儿![phr] Eat a little more!
5. pronoun: E.g. 这个字[怎么]写?[phr] How to write this character?
6. numeral-measure word phrase: E.g. [两次]参加比赛都没有成功,….[phr] I have failed twice in the competition. …
7. phrase of locality: E.g. 我[五点以前]肯定会回来。[phr]I will definitely be back before five o'clock.
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