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yí yàng
adj. same, alike, equal
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相同 vs 一样

1. When these two words are attributive modifiers or predicates in a sentence, they can be used exchangeably.
For example:
很多中学要求学生穿着相同(一样)的服装。 [phr] Many high schools require their students to wear uniforms.
在不同的年代,我们定义道德的方法是不一样(相同)的。 [phr] In different times, we define morality in different ways.

2. In some fixed phrases/ structure, only 相同 can be used:
For example:
不尽相同 [phr] not all is the same, be different
相同点 [n] similarity, the same point
各不相同 [phr] differ from one another, be diverse from each other, have nothing in common with each other
相同之处 [nphr] resemblance, the thing in common, similarity

3. In some fixed phrases/ structure, only 一样 can be used:
For example:
一模一样 [phr] exactly alike, exactly the same
像...一样: 他像猪一样号叫。 -/- [phr] He squealed like a pig.

4. When appearing in a sentence in a structure as the adverbial adjunct, or as part of the adverbial adjunct, only 一样 can be used.
For example:
一样 as the adverbial adjunct: 他们俩个子一样高。 r/- [phr] The two of them are of the same height.
一样 is part of the structure "和...一样..." which acts as the adverbial adjunct: 这个地方和我家乡一样漂亮。 r/s [phr] This place is as beautiful as my hometown.
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