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suī rán
conj. although, though
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虽然 is often paired with 但是, 可是, 却 or 不过 to form a subordinate complex sentence. 虽然 leads the subordinate clause, and 但是, 可是, 却 or 不过 leads the main clause.
E.g.1 他虽然不聪明,但是学习非常努力。 [phr] He studies really hard although he is not smart.
E.g.2 他虽然不聪明,可是学习非常努力。 [phr] Although he is not smart, he studies really hard.
E.g.3 他虽然不聪明,不过学习非常努力。 [phr] Although he is not smart, he studies really hard.
E.g.4 虽然他不聪明,学习却非常努力。 [phr] Although he is not smart, he studies really hard.
lisaC
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what's different between 虽然 and 尽管? please answer...
文浩
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虽然 vs 尽管

Both are used in subordinate complex sentences indicating "adversative relations". What is "adversative relation"? The second clause of the main clause, which is opposite in meaning to the first clause (the subordinate clause).

1. Conjunction 虽然 is often paired with 但是 to indicate the admission of a certain fact (虽然...) then turning to the main idea (introduced by 但是) . 但是 can be shortened to 但 or omitted when the adversation is not emphasized. In addition to 但是, we can also use other conjunctions, e.g. 可是 and 不过, or correlative adverb 却.
Examples:
他虽然不聪明,但是/但/可是/不过学习非常努力。 [phr] Although he is not smart, he studies really hard.
他虽然不聪明,学习却非常努力。 [phr] Although he is not smart, he studies really hard.

2. Conjunction 尽管...但是... is equivalent to 虽然...但是... in meaning. They are used in the same way, however, 尽管 carries a stronger tone. In addition to 但是, we can also use other correlative adverbs, 却, 仍然, 还 or 也, etc. 尽管 can be omitted.
Examples:
他尽管不聪明,但是学习非常努力。 [phr] Although he is not smart, he studies really hard.
他尽管不聪明,学习却非常努力。 [phr] Although he is not smart, he studies really hard.

3. When the main clause appears before the subordinate, only 尽管 虽然 can be used by itself in the subordinate clause, not in pairs with 但是.
Examples:
他学习非常努力,尽管不聪明。 [phr] He studies really hard, though he is not smart.
他学习非常努力,虽然不聪明。 [phr] He studies really hard, though he is not smart.
lisaC
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