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lián máng
adv. at once, promptly
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连忙 can be used on something that has happened . It cannot be used on something that is going to happen at the time of speaking. 连忙 can be used on something that can be decided/controlled, but it cannot be used on something that is beyond one’s control.
For example:
E.g. 1 听到电话铃声,他连忙去接。 [phr] Upon hearing the telephone bell, he went to answer it at once.
E.g. 2 车上上来了一位老人,我连忙站起来给他让座。 [phr] An old man got on the bus; I stood up promptly and offered him my seat.
E.g. 1 and 2 are both events/ actions which have already happened. And both actions can be controlled or decided by the action maker. In other words, the subjects can decide whether to “answer (the phone)” or “offer the old man the seat”.
In E.g. 3 and 4 below, we cannot use 连忙:
E.g. 3 别再罗唆了,赶紧(X 连忙)工作吧。 [phr] Stop your prolixity and get to work at once.
E.g. 4 看着太阳马上(X 连忙)要下山了,我不由得加快了步伐。 [phr] Noticing that the sun had almost set, I couldn't help quickening my footsteps.
In E.g. 3 above, the action “get to work” has not happened yet at the time of speaking. So we cannot use 连忙.
In E.g. 4 above, we cannot replace the adverb 马上with 连忙. Because“sunset” is part of the nature. No matter what we do, we cannot prevent the sun from setting. Therefore the sun setting is something that is beyond one’s control and we cannot use 连忙 in E.g.4.

Your may also read our notes on 马上, 一下子 and 赶紧 to find out their differences.
lisaC
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连忙 vs 立刻 vs 立即:

连忙 can be used on something that has happened . It cannot be used on something that is going to happen at the time of speaking. 连忙 can be used on something that can be decided/controlled, but it cannot be used on something that is beyond one’s control. The subject of 连忙 is usually a person:
E.g. 听到电话铃声,他连忙去接。 [phr] Upon hearing the telephone bell, he went to answer it at once.


立即 and 立刻 do not have these limits. They can be used on something in the past or in the future, and the subject can be a person or a thing. Here are three examples using 立刻 (立即 can be used in these sentences as well):
E.g.1a In the past: 地震发生后,军队立刻前去救灾。 [phr] Right after the earthquake, the army rushed there to rescue the victims.
E.g.1b Will happen in the future: 只要你同意,我就立刻过去。 [phr] As long as you agree, I'll go there right away.
E.g.1c The subject is not a person: 若机舱内有人吸烟,报警器会立刻响起。 [phr] If someone smokes in the cabin of the plane, the alarm will sound off right away.
lisaC
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